Understanding fatty acids
01. Short-chain fatty acid （SCFA）
Short-chain fatty acids, also known as Volatile fatty acids (VFA), are defined as organic fatty acids with carbon atoms less than 6 according to the number of carbon atoms in the carbon chain, including acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, and valeric acid.
* Can be quickly absorbed by the intestine.
Maintain the normal function of the large intestine and the morphology and function of colon epithelial cells.
* Can promote sodium absorption, butyric acid in the gut can increase the production of lactobacillus and reduce the number of E. coli.
* After oxidation, it becomes the main energy source of colon mucosal cells, accounting for about 70%.
* It is difficult to reach the posterior segment of the intestine to play a role, and fatty acid salts, especially glycerides, can be processed to control their release sites, thus playing a role in the posterior segment of the intestine.
* Smelly, added to the feed to affect palatability.
* Corrosive, easy to corrode processing equipment when added to feed.
02. Medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are saturated fatty acids containing 6 to 12 carbon atoms, mainly including caproic acid (C6), caprylic acid (C8), capric acid (C10), and lauric acid (C12). In the form of medium chain triglyceride (MCT), it is present in animal milk fat and various feed raw materials, especially coconut oil and palm oil.
* MCFAs can rapidly provide energy for intestinal epithelial cells, increase the activity of mucose-binding enzymes and intestinal disaccharides, increase the height of intestinal villi, improve the digestion and absorption function of animals, and maintain the integrity of animal intestines.
* MCFAs and monoglycerides have good bacteriostatic effect, which is conducive to stabilizing the balance of animal intestinal flora, and the bacteriostatic effect of medium-chain monoglycerides is better than that of free fatty acids.
* MCFAs is involved in the regulation of the body’s immune system.
* MCFAs monoglycerides have antiviral properties, especially monoglyceride laurate (GML), which can inhibit the infection and transmission of the virus.
* MCFAs has good emulsifying properties.
03. Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA)
Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are fatty acids with more than 16 carbon atoms. Among them, polyunsaturated fatty acids have been studied more, that is, fatty acids with 2 or more unsaturated double bond structures, also known as polyene fatty acids.
According to the N-numbering system (also known as the ω numbering system), that is, the position of the first double bond starting from the methyl end is different, it is divided into n-3 group, n-6 group, n-7 group, n-9 group, which has important biological functions are n-3 group and n-6 group.
n-6 PUFAs include linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, LA), gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-6, GLA), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6, AA), etc.
n-3 PUFAs include long chain PUfas such as A-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA).
A-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of n-3 group and n-6 group PUFA, respectively, which are derived from other PUFA through a series of carbon chain extension and desaturation in vivo. But the conversion efficiency is very low, can not meet the high-efficiency production and growth function.
Three balances of fatty acids
1. Unsaturated and saturated fatty acid balance (U/S)
Directly affect the absorption efficiency and production efficiency
Recommended ratio: U/S = 2.25 to 3
2. Short/medium/long chain fatty acid balance
Fast energy supply, intestinal health, nutrient absorption efficiency
Recommended ratio: Short/Medium/long =(1~4) : (6~20) : (70~93)
3. Omega-3 / omega-6 fatty acid balance
Affect the body’s immune regulation, meat, egg and milk quality, fur quality
Recommended ratio: ω-3/ω-6=1:6
Application of fatty acid balance technology in poultry production
This is a compound fat product developed according to the nutritional structure of fatty acids in broilers. Provide short chain, medium chain and omega-3 fatty acids required for broiler’s diets, and achieve the balance of saturated/unsaturated, ω-3/ω-6, short, medium and long chain fatty acids in diets. It can improve the health state of animals, promote growth, boost feed efficiency, breeding efficiency and meat and egg quality.
Promote absorption: promote intestinal development, maintain the integrity of intestinal mucosal system, and improve the efficiency of nutrient absorption.
Regulate the flora: control the proliferation of harmful bacteria, reduce intestinal damage, and reduce the probability of disease.
Improve immunity: improve resistance to stress, reduce the impact of environmental factors, reduce inflammation consumption.